But to anyone who has ever wondered whether using m4 macros to configure autoconf to write a shell script to look for 26 Fortran compilers in order to build a Web browser was a bit of a detour, Brooks offers well-reasoned hope that there can be a better way.
Today’s Unix/Posix-like operating systems, even including IBM’s z/OS mainframe version, as seen with 1980 eyes are identical; yet the 31,085 lines of configure for libtool still check if <sys/stat.h> and <stdlib.h> exist, even though the Unixen, which lacked them, had neither sufficient memory to execute libtool nor disks big enough for its 16-MB source code.
This is commonly believed, but in fact, a type checker introduces bugs. It shifts the cost of a certain class of mistakes so much that the kinds of mistakes people make in the presence of a type checker destroy their ability to think clearly about types.
Experience strongly suggests that people who use strongly-typed languages and have compilers who produce informative error messages when type constraints are violated, cause their programmers to believe several idiotic ideas: (1) Type errors are important. They are not. You would not make them if the cost of making type errors was higher. (2) Satisfying the compiler is no longer only an inconsequential necessary condition for a program to be correct, it becomes a sufficient condition in the minds of those who make the first mistake. (3) Errors in programs are separated into two kinds of vastly different nature: static errors (which the compiler may report) and dynamic errors (which the compiler cannot find).
This false dichotomy completely warps the minds of progrrammers in these languages: Instead of becoming fundamentally stupid errors that the compiler should just go and fix, static errors become /more/ important than dynamic errors, leading to serious growth of dynamic errors because programmers tend to rely on the compiler for detection and correction of mistakes.
In my view, to be a programmer is to be sufficiently well versed in some non-computer-related field that you can see how the computer can aid practioners of that field accomplish their goals. Many programmers never progress beyond the point of aiding their own use of the computer and never do anything “real” – the number of software packages that help people read mail and news and waste enormous amount of time in front of the computer are legion, but they tend to make people spend /more/ time on these tasks than they would or should have done compared to actually productive tasks.
As for the argument that unit testing can replace strong typing, consider the common refactoring practice in strongly typed languages: changing the type of an argument of a particular function. In a strongly typed language, it’s enough to modify the declaration of that function and then fix all the build breaks. In a weakly typed language, the fact that a function now expects different data cannot be propagated to call sites. Unit testing may catch some of the mismatches, but testing is almost always a probabilistic rather than a deterministic process. Testing is a poor substitute for proof.
The only serious argument I hear against strong static type checking is that it might eliminate some programs that are semantically correct. In practice, this happens extremely rarely and, in any case, every language provides some kind of a backdoor to bypass the type system when that’s really necessary. Even Haskell has unsafeCoerce. But such devices should by used judiciously. Franz Kafka’s character, Gregor Samsa, breaks the type system when he metamorphoses into a giant bug, and we all know how it ends.
This is honestly the kind of crappy advice that has me paying little to no attention to the Haskell community any longer. A noisy subsdt of silly people has collectively gone nuts for abstractions that provide little value other than making them feel special. It is most disappointing.
What if people were not so goddamn scared of machine intelligence higher than their own that they would keep computers as stupid as can be? Where are the people working on the future? Where are the futurists that do the interesting stuff that will hit us all around the next bend? I mean, to hell with some practical extraction and reporting language, I want real progress, and I want it before I go mad with rage over the wastes of human ingenuity, such as it is, that goes into writing yet another spyware “app” for Windows so yet another retard can send his obnoxious, insulting advertising to people who explicitly do not want that kind of information? For that matter, where is the spam filter that does the job of the intelligent, conscientious receptionist I can no longer afford because of the supposed labor-saving office automation that makes an ordinary business letter cost 20 times what it did in 1965 (adjusted for all important economic indicators)? While I am at it – where is the real savings of the computer revolution? Who took all my money and gave me advertising for life insurance and Viagra?
Exceptionally fast code can be written in any language. The question is where the “line of convenience is” drawn. Common Lisp (and other Lisps in the past) have made it convenient to stop coding when the function performed its job correctly. C and C++ have made it convenient to stop coding when the function performed its job quickly. Unless you are willing to continue coding past the “line of convenience” to quick Common Lisp and correct C/C++ code, you are comparing apple-tree flowers and rotting oranges for edibility.
The BSD kernels, from all accounts, seem to be stabler, and of better quality than Linux kernels seem to be. BSD kernels are much easier to read and understand. On the flip side, Linux kernels more feature rich, and the quality has improved significantly, seem to perform much better, and better hardware support than the BSD kernels do. Indeed, I’ve heard comments that when it comes to driver support, the BSD’s are where Linux was 5 years ago. I’ll talk more about hardware support below. Personally, the supposed added bugginess of the Linux kernels have not exceeded my threshold of acceptability. And, overall, I don’t think that a Debian box feels any less robust and stable than, say, a FreeBSD box. Of course, the recent spate of holes in Linux kernels are beginning to strain that. (However, we should keep in mind that having more features is a contributory factor: the two latest holes were in the mremap(2) call that is not available for any of the *BSD.)